Menopausia y fisiopatología del riesgo cardiovascular.

DV Awad, JL Neyro

Resumen


RESUMEN.
La menopausia supone el cese de la actividad de los ovarios y con él la disminución drástica en la producción estrogénica. El déficit de estrógenos, presente desde la perimenopausia, tiene una influencia negativa en el endotelio vascular y produce disfunción del endotelio vascular que es el origen de la arteriosclerosis y de la enfermedad cardiovascular en última instancia.El análisis de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular puede dar luz sobre el incremento de la enfermedad cardiovascular que la evidencia científica señala como origen de enfermedad en la perimenopausia y periodos posteriores de la vida de la mujer. Durante la postmenopausia la disminución del efecto estrogénico conlleva a la resistencia periférica a la insulina, obesidad central (abdominal) y dislipemia y a otros factores de riesgo de enfermedad cardiaca y vascular.

Revisar los factores de riesgo cardiovascular durante el climaterio puede dar valor a la pesquisa de los mismos en la asistencia sanitaria diaria a mujeres durante su transición menopáusica. Este debe ser un objetivo prioritario de la asistencia ginecológica al climaterio.

ABSTRACT.
Menopause causes the cessation of the activity of the ovaries and with it the drastic decrease in estrogenic production. Estrogen deficiency, present from perimenopause, has a negative influence on the vascular endothelium and produces vascular endothelial dysfunction that is the origin of arteriosclerosis and ultimately cardiovascular disease.The analysis of cardiovascular risk factors can shed light on the increase in cardiovascular disease that the best scientific evidence reports as the origin of disease in perimenopause and later periods of a woman's life. During postmenopause, the decrease in the estrogenic effect leads to peripheral resistance to insulin, central obesity (abdominal) and dyslipidemia, and to other risk factors for heart and vascular disease.

Reviewing the cardiovascular risk factors during the climacteric can highlight the screening of them in the daily sanitary assistance to women during their menopausal transition. This should be a priority objective of gynecological assistance to the climacteric state.


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Referencias


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